A urine drug test, also known as a urine drug screen or a UDS, is a painless test generally administered by a health care professional who is trained in the proper procedures of collection and interpretation of results. The test cup strips analyze urine for the presence of drugs and prescription medications using an absorbent lateral flow membrane that reacts to the presences of drug metabolites in the urine. Depending on the configuration of the strips on the cup, a single test can screen for up to 18 substances from a single specimen. The urine drug test usually screens for drugs of abuse but can also be used to ensure compliance with prescribed medications. The UDS is a quantitative test. Quantitative testing measures the amount of a substance present in a urine sample. Each individual test strip has a cutoff level in most cases determined by the FDA. A “cutoff level” is the minimum amount of a detectable substance that will trigger the test strip to indicate a “Positive” result. It is critically important to remember that any “Quantitative” test will only indicate the presence of a substance. A “Definitive” test which is run on highly complex scientific equipment monitored and managed by Forensic Toxicologists is the only way to define exactly what levels of the substance are present in the sample provided by the donor. Definitive tests are much more expensive than a UDS but are necessary to confirm that the person providing the specimen has used a drug of abuse to a degree of 99.999% certainty.
A urine drug test can help detect potential substance abuse problems. After a drug test identifies drugs that may have been misused or abused, a loved one can help the individual start a substance abuse treatment plan. At home Urine Drug Test Kits are a safe, discreet and effective way to determine if a potential problem exists.
One of the best ways to test for adulteration or dilution is to determine certain urinary characteristics such as pH and specific gravity and to detect the presence of oxidants/PCC, specific gravity, pH, nitrite, glutaraldehyde and creatinine in urine.
Some of our urine cups are equipped with integrated temperature and adulteration strips; however, you can also buy these separately for use with any of our urine tests.
(Pyridinium chlorochromate) tests for the presence of oxidizing agents such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide. Pyridinium Chlorochromate is a commonly used adulterant.2 Normal human urine should not contain oxidants or PCC.
Specific Gravity (SG)
Tests for sample dilution. The normal range is from 1.003 to 1.030. Values outside this range may be the result of specimen dilution or adulteration.
Tests for the presence of acidic or alkaline adulterants in urine. Normal pH levels should be in the range of 4.0 to 9.0. Values outside of this range may indicate the sample has been altered.
Tests for commonly used commercial adulterants such as Klear or Whizzies. They work by oxidizing the major cannabinoid metabolite THC-COOH.3 Normal urine should contain no trace of nitrite. Positive results generally indicate the presence of an adulterant.
Tests for the presence of an aldehyde. Adulterants such as UrinAid and Clear Choice contain glutaraldehyde which may cause false negative screening results by disrupting the enzyme used in some immunoassay tests.2 Glutaraldehyde is not normally found in urine; therefore, detection of glutaraldehyde in a urine specimen is generally an indicator of adulteration.
Creatinine is a waste product of creatine, an amino acid contained in muscle tissue and found in urine.1 A person may attempt to foil a test by drinking excessive amounts of water or diuretics such as herbal teas to “flush” the system. Creatinine and specific gravity are two ways to check for dilution and flushing, which are the most common mechanisms used in an attempt to circumvent drug testing. Low creatinine and specific gravity levels may indicate dilute urine. The absence of creatinine (< 5 mg/dL) is indicative of a specimen not consistent with human urine.
Best Tips to Avoid Adulteration:
Develop tamper-proof collection site
Limit access to water (8oz per hour)
Directly observe the collection which is the most effective approach to preventing substitution and adulteration
Visually inspect sample
Check specimen temperature
Do not announce or post screenings in advance
Amphetamine (AMP) 1000 ng/mL
Benzodiazepine (BZO) 300 ng/mL
Buprenorphine (BUP) 10 ng/mL
Cocaine (COC) 300 ng/mL
Alcohol (ETG) 300 & 500 ng/mL
Fentanyl (FYL) 200 ng/mL
Methadone (MTD) 300 ng/mL
Ecstasy (MDMA) 500 ng/mL
Methamphetamine (MET/mAMP) 1000 ng/mL
Opiates 300 (OPI) 300/MOP
Oxycodone (OXY) 100 ng/mL
Phencyclidine (PCP) 25 ng/mL
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA) 1000 ng/mL
Marijuana (THC) 50 ng/mL